The 2019-2020 coronavirus disease pandemic is a pandemic arising from the coronavirus disease that started in 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). for the first time in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, 6 capital of the Hubei province, in the People’s Republic of China, when cases of a group of sick people with an unknown type of pneumonia were reported. The majority of affected individuals had ties to workers at the Wuhan South China Seafood Wholesale Market.7 The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized it as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.
As of August 6, 2020, more than 19.2 million cases of the disease have been reported in 218 countries and territories in the world (the five countries with the highest number of infected are the United States, Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa), with more than 717,000 deaths (the five countries with the highest number of deaths are the United States, Brazil, Mexico, the United Kingdom and India) and more than 12.3 million cases of recovered persons (the five countries with the highest number of deaths). number of people recovered are the United States, Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa).
The virus is generally transmitted from person to person through tiny droplets of saliva, known as Flügge droplets, which are emitted by talking, sneezing, coughing, or breathing. It spreads mainly when people are in close contact, but also It can be spread by touching a contaminated surface and after bringing contaminated hands to the face or mucous membranes. Their incubation period is usually five days, but it can vary from two to fourteen days. The most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulties Complications can include pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, or sepsis. Although there are numerous in development, there is still no specific vaccine or antiviral treatment, so currently the only way to address the disease is through symptomatic and supportive therapy.
Recommended prevention measures include hand washing, coughing, physical distancing and mask use, as well as self-isolation and follow-up for people suspected of being infected. Those with conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, respiratory disease, high blood pressure, or immunodeficiencies are at a much higher risk of developing the disease and developing serious complications, and are advised to stay home as much as possible.
Likewise, it has been confirmed that other animals – such as dogs, cats, tigers, lions and bats – can contract COVID-19 just like humans. It is still under study whether animals should also take the same distancing measures as humans to prevent its spread. To prevent the spread of the virus, governments have imposed travel restrictions, quarantines, confinements, cancellation of events and closure of establishments.
The pandemic has had a disruptive socio-economic effect. Colleges and universities have been closed in more than 124 countries, affecting more than 2.2 billion students. A third of the world’s population is confined, with strong movement restrictions , which has led to a drastic reduction in economic activity and a parallel increase in unemployment. Misinformation maneuvers and conspiracy theories about the virus have been unleashed, as well as some incidents of xenophobia and racism against Chinese citizens and other countries in East and Southeast Asia. Due to the reduction in travel and the closure of numerous companies, there has been a decrease in air pollution.